This article considers the possibility of applying a team style of training based on the method of training cases using the Trello web-service based on the Japanese Kanban system. We study the possibility of involving university students in joint work on large projects using the Trello web service to teach teamwork skills and parallel independent search for resources and a creative approach to solving the tasks set by the teacher. From this point of view, the author's study takes place through different levels of text analysis on the example of V. Astafyev's stories “The Autumn Sorrows and Joys” and “The Last Bow”, and sets the prospect of studying other types of texts, “Dreams of the Cursed” by A. Zhaksylykov and “The School for Fools” by Sasha Sokolov. A comprehensive approach to the study of the text makes it possible to develop the literary competencies of students, fill the maximum lacunae in knowledge, and attract each student to work in the project.
Because of COVID–19 most part of the students, including high school students, had to study online, which led to the fact that almost all students have poor basic training – both in the field of language and literature. Currently, university teachers face with a plenty of problems in the educational process. It often happens that even after returning to the traditional format of the educational process if one student gets a positive COVID–19 result then a whole group of students have to go online again. The alternation of onlineoffline formats creates unclear norms of a learning environment; students explain their academic inertia “I didn’t do it because I didn’t understand it” which slows down the educational process. Thus, teachers have to repeat all previous lessons, thus, spending more time than they should.
In this regard, it seems that the most effective solution is to introduce an online group for 2-3 seminars per semester. The advantage of this solution is that this group – based on a Trello board – functions whether the training is online or offline. Trello is also available for iPhone and Android operating systems, which makes it easier for both students and teachers to access the common Trello board.
Accessible to any user on the Internet, the Trello web service is built on the popular Japanese Kanban method based on the division of tasks, the transparency of results, and saving labor resources. Such an approach to the educational process is justified by the fact that modern students and teachers of the Republic of Kazakhstan are tasked with making the education system the most efficient according to the message of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Kassym-Jomart Tokayev . One of the main tasks set by the President is the development of science. It is necessary to teach students not only the basics of philology and literature, but also the ability to work both individually and in a team, saving their strength in the process and effectively using the available material, as well as quickly finding a new one. The collection and analysis of information, the ability to listen to classmates and quickly respond to a change in the paradigm of existing knowledge develops critical thinking and prepares an expert specialist with broad knowledge and necessary skills in a much shorter time compared to students learning with the principle of “every man for himself” without sharing the knowledge or information obtained with others. The article considers the learning process as a team game, when all students work on the material, leaving their achievements open to the teacher and fellow students, since the main goal is not to earn as many points as possible individually, but to come to
Corresponding author’s e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org the exam as well-prepared as possible together. In any case, inactive students with this method of teaching will stand out, and the teacher will be able to decide the academic fate of the lagging behind.
In addition to improving academic literacy and literary and research competencies, it is important for modern young professionals to be able to use innovative technologies and work individually and in a team, offline and online. The remote offices have long been a common type of work organizations in the modern world, when employees of one company work from different parts of the planet, administrated by one manager, for example, TeamViewer. Thus, using the method of literary cases in the Trello web server is improving not only academic, but also personal, professional competencies of students.
Material and methods
Two stories by V. Astafyev, “The Autumn Sorrows and Joys” and “The Last Bow” , were taken as the material of the study. We used the described method of creating training cases on the Trello web server to study V. Astafyev's style, features of the author's individual picture of the world, his place among the literature of the 20th century, ideas, goals, and help students cover the material of several lectures in one seminar, teach them both individual and team work, critical thinking and the ability to transform oral responses into written text and vice versa.
It is worth considering the advantages of the technological and activity approach in this study, as well as the combination of heuristic methods with traditional logical-epistemological ones. In other words, we use creative, organizational activity, heuristic methods with the logic, analysis, and discussing practical results during the creation of the method of educational literary cases on the Trello board.
The works , , and  provide thoroughly information on the use of the project method and the case study method in education.
This article describes the experience of the project-based learning method using the case method and innovative methods and Trello web service based on teaching literary students. The method of teaching students the literature and philology through cases and the Trello board differs from the same method used in teaching psychology students and medical students in that for doctors and psychologists, a case is a specific disease or a clinical case in a patient, and the correct solution is the correct diagnosis. For philology students, a case is a task set by a teacher, e.g., the study of V. Astafyev's work. The “correct diagnosis” in this case is the consolidation of knowledge about the author and the practical application of students' literary competencies. The more such projects, the better students begin to understand the essence of literary analysis and its difference from linguistic and philological ones.
Results and discussion
After analyzing the results of working with Trello and the method of literary teaching cases, the strengths and weaknesses of this method, the difficulties that a teacher may encounter, and the possibility of using this method to teach students of philology and literature to more complex literary methods of text analysis.
We examine the stories of V. Astafyev “The Autumn Sorrows and Joys” and “The Last Bow” applying the method of literary case.
The case structure consists of three sections. The first section is a clearly articulated “Learning Objective” with a specific deadline date. The second section is “Theoretical information”; it is usually a list of references. The redundancy of information in this section is necessary for the formation of the student's skill of independent work planning, a creative approach to solving the tasks. The third section is “Examples”; sometimes it can be a file with the work of students of the previous year on a similar topic or an analysis of a sample text written by a teacher.
The study case method assumes that students study the writer on the example of one or two works in various sections. That is, one group or several groups of students study the selected works from several points of view at once.
The following cases are offered to students in Trello:
- “The history of the creation of the work”;
- “Dominants of the work”;
- “Narrative analysis of the work”;
- “Individual-author's picture of the world”.
Each of these cases involves in-depth work on the author's biography, issue, idea, style, vocabulary, phonetics, narration, discourse, while the division of tasks into cases gives students an understanding that theprecise result can be achieved only by working in a group with each other, not copying each other, but putting their part of the work into a common idea –– to understand the individual author's picture of the world, learn to work with literary terms, make an independent analysis, discuss the results and, if necessary, correct them –– which generally raises the literary competence of students to a high level.
The literary competencies of young professionals, philologists and literary critics should include the ability to think critically, understand the connections between cases given by teachers during lessons. Figure 1 demonstrates the case “Dominants of the text”.
It is also important for young scholars to understand the difference between text analysis familiar from school experience, where there is a lot of philology in general and linguistics in particular, and complex literary analysis proper, which about the modern researcher V.I. Tyupa writes: “... the analysis of a literary work, substantiating its explanations and interpretations, presupposes an agreed unity of (a) fixing the observations on its text, (b) systematizing these observations and some (c) identifications of a given artistic whole. However, one should not think that any judgments about a work that belong to one of the listed levels of scientific knowledge can be classified as literary analysis. Many judgments of this kind are only comments on the text –– more or less depth of penetration, more or less of comprehensiveness, or more or less of heuristic significance. The analysis of a literary text can be carried out in two main strategies: scientific description and scientific identification. In the first case, a consistent movement is carried out from fixing the ingredients of the phenomenon under study to its identification. This path involves the search for the integrity of the whole in the composition of its parts. The accuracy and evidence of descriptive analysis is higher than identification analysis, however, its application to large texts is technically difficult due to its laboriousness” [6; 12, 13].
According to some practical experiences, university students during the text analysis should use something familiar to move from common text analysis to complex literary analysis gradually. Thus, many researchers propose this approach during the text analysis. For example, V.I. Tyupa proposes semio-aesthetic analysis, mode analysis, genre communicative strategies, aesthetic modality, integrative cycles, and so on.
When examining “The Last Bow” by V. Astafyev we introduce three cases familiar to students – and only “Narrative Analysis of the Work” is not familiar to everyone since in a number of universities narratology is not taught as a separate discipline, or is given only on senior years.
Young scientists, as they get their education, should understand the difference between scientific thinking, operating with facts, and the reader's perception of the text, operating with feelings (fantasies [6; 9]), and fully understand the modes of scientific character:
- Conceptualization (Interpretation) [6; 8–11].
In turn, the Trello board gives the teacher the opportunity to evaluate both the contribution of a certain group of students, their ability to work together, and the individual academic abilities of each student, to form strong, weak or mixed teams within the same group in the future, thereby pulling up those who are lagging behind or returning to the learning process of uninvolved students. Correspondence with a whole group or with one student is also possible – if there is not enough time at the seminar, the ability to make comments in writing helps a lot.
To fully solve their case, students distribute educational literature and tasks among themselves, first they get acquainted with theoretical literature, then, based on given examples they complete each task.
For example, let us analyze the case “Dominants of the work”.
When creating a case, the teacher writes down on the Trello board the names of the students who will work with this case, then the students themselves distribute their tasks and workloads and sign the submitted papers themselves.
In section “Learning task”, the teacher places the following information as a separate Word file.
The dominant is the dominant idea (concept, image, meaning, etc.) in the work. What seems the main thing is main after the reading. The dominant can be the visual and expressive means of the language, the concept, the archetype. There are also aesthetic dominants. For example, Tyupa V.I. analyzes the poem “To Chaadaev” in this way: “The heroic dominant of Pushkin’s “To Chaadaev” (1818) directs the selfdetermination of the lyrical “we” along the path of liberation from the false boundaries of existence, acquiring a superpersonal assignment as a true role boundary (“Fatherland let us listen to the calling”) and, in the long term, the final coincidence with it, when “on the ruins of autocracy / They will write our names!”. In the heroic system of values, writing one's name in the tablets of the world order means becoming a full-fledged personality” [6; 189].
After you have read two stories by V. Astafyev, “The Autumn Sorrows and Joys” and “The Last Bow”, answer the following questions:
- Why and for what purpose were these two stories by V. Astafyev chosen from the many stories that make up the story “The Last Bow”?
- What is common and what is the difference between the characters of these two stories?
- Read these stories at least twice. On the second reading, as a reader, literary and stylistic markers of this work should already be formed in you: you intuitively catch the dominants, that is, what a competent reader and literary researcher notices in the first place – features of language, style, composition, description of characters and narrative, images, ideas. That is, what is fixed and subsequently pops up in your mind at the mention of the prose of V. Astafyev and specifically his story “The Last Bow”.
- Make a choice - which dominants of V. Astafyev's work “The Last Bow” you will describe (the number of dominants - according to the number of students in this team). Write a good, evidence-based rationale for your choice.
For example: V. Astafyev in his works, according to researchers L.N. Paderina, Z. Matyusheva, I.A. Podyukov, A.A. Gagaev, P.A. Gagaev, L.G. Samotik, V.N. Ovcharova, M. Perkiyomiaki, uses a branched figurative system of the Russian language - comparisons, metaphors, descriptions, etc., thus, one of the dominants of his language style is the widespread use of metaphors.
1) Metaphors are my dominant in the report on the language of V. Astafyev's story “The Last Bow”.
“Grandfather smoked his cigarette, crumpled it with a shoe cover, sighed guiltily, as if he were not saying goodbye to a garden that had served its purpose, but leaving a living sick friend: the whole garden was chilly, disheveled, in patches of cabbage leaves, with occasional heaps of potato tops, with naked, disheveled bushes sow thistle and hawk, with piercing, crumpled borders, with orphan blackening bird cherry” (up to 5 examples).
2) Dialectisms and colloquial words are dominant in the report on the language of V. Astafyev's story “The Last Bow”.
“For a whole week, sometimes two, a clatter of cuts scattered throughout the village, women scurried out of the consumer house, hiding scales under their half-huts, the peasants, driven out of the huts, crowded around the threshing floor or near an abandoned magazine, smoked fresh tobacco, scooping a pinch from each other from pouches, they talked solidly about threshing, about catching squirrels, about the toboggan run, what was about to come, what types and rumors about the market and market prices in the city” (up to 5 examples).
- In the “Theoretical Information” section, you can list several authors or divide them into basic and additional literature:
- T.A. Demidova, L.M. Gritsenko. “Methodology for a complex description of idiostyle in the aspect of the theory of imagery”;
- D.S. Likhachev. “The inner world of a work of art”;
- M.L. Gasparov. “Again clouds over me...” Method of analysis;
- M.L. Gasparov. “Philology as morality”;
- R.O. Jacobson. “In Search of the Essence of Language”;
- R.O. Jacobson. “Linguistics and poetics”;
- Yu.M. Lotman. “Analysis of the poetic text”;
- M.M. Bakhtin. “The problem of the text in linguistics, philology and other humanities”;
- Yu.V. Mann. “Author and Narrative”;
- N.S. Bolotnova. “Philological analysis of the text”;
- V.P. Belyanin. “Fundamentals of Psycholinguistic Diagnostics” (Models of the World in Literature);
- L.G. Babenko, Yu.V. Kazarin. “Linguistic analysis of literary text”.
- Section “Examples” is examples of dominants in the writer's work.
The teacher himself decides what literature and what examples to give to students. Considering the final goal of teaching, i.e., to increase the literary competence of students, teacher sets the vector with examples to teach them to peer into the text and think about the text.
Let us analyze the following passages:
1) “At the end of autumn, when the forests are already bare, and the mountains on either side of the Yenisei seem higher, more enormous, and the Yenisei itself, which in September was still lightened to the bottom stone, will be taken from the bottom by sleepy water, and frost will come through the empty gardens, in our village there comes a short but stormy time, the time for cutting cabbage.
Harvesting cabbage for the long Siberian winter, for large Chaldon families, is a thorough business, requiring annual preparation, and therefore I will tell the story of cabbage cutting thoroughly, from afar.
Potatoes in the gardens are dug up, dried and poured underground for food, underground for seeds and sale. Carrots, rutabaga, beets are also cut out, even radishes, with their blunt snouts breaking through the edges of the ridges, are pulled out, and their piebald, portly bodies rest in the twilight of the basement on top of any other vegetable. People talk about this vegetable somehow with a sneer: “Why the devil is not joking, now the radish is in the market! In the post - radish tail! But they can’t do without it, especially after parties and in case of illness, when it is necessary to strengthen the spirit and strength” (“The Autumn Sorrows and Joys”).
2) “I made my way to our house with my back. I wanted to be the first to meet my grandmother, and that's why I didn't go down the street. The old, bare poles in our and neighboring gardens crumbled, where the stakes should have been, sticking out props, twigs, plank fragments. The vegetable gardens themselves were squeezed by insolent, freely overgrown boundaries. Our garden, especially from the ridges, was so crushed with folly that I noticed the beds in it only when, having fastened last year's burdocks on the riding breeches, I made my way to the bathhouse, from which the roof had fallen, the bathhouse itself no longer smelled of smoke, the door looked like a leaf carbon paper, lay aside, the current grass pierced between the boards. A small paddock of potatoes and beds, with a densely occupied vegetable garden, weeded from the house, the earth was bare black there. And these, as if lost, but still freshly darkening beds, rotten sleigh in the yard, pounded by shoes, a low stack of firewood under the kitchen window testified that people lived in the house.
Suddenly, for some reason, I felt terrified, some unknown force pinned me to the spot, squeezed my throat, and, having overcome myself with difficulty, I moved into the hut, but I also moved timidly, on tiptoe.
The door is open. A lost bumblebee buzzed in the vestibule, and there was a smell of rotten wood. There was almost no paint left on the door and on the porch. Only shreds of it shone in the rubble of the floorboards and on the jambs of the door, and although I walked cautiously, as if I had run over the excess and now was afraid to disturb the cool peace in the old house, the cracked floorboards still stirred and moaned under my boots. And the farther I walked, the more muffled, darker it became in front, the floor sagging, decrepit, eaten by mice in the corners, and more and more tangibly smelled of the pretense of wood, the moldiness of the underground” (“The Last Bow”).
Questions and tasks:
What season is described in these passages?
What dominant do you see in the text? (Answers may be different, but let us focus on the dominant image of the garden as an indicator of how the characters live and what tone the author sets for the work, describing the garden near the house).
It is obvious that both texts are autumn. In the first text, at the phonetic level, a lot of the sound “o” is heard: mountains, autumn, naked, huge, bottom, etc. That is, the author, already at the level of the scale, introduces the reader to autumn chilly weather, when it rains and damp.
In the second text, the author does not have the task of introducing the reader into this state. Here is another beginning – “Backs...” – the first word of this text. There is no longer prosperity – with the very first word, a picture of dilapidated housing and a meager garden is drawn, which goes right from the door – so as not to go far.
Next, compare the vocabulary of the two texts and the description of the garden.
The comparison of “The Autumn Sorrows and Joys” and “The Last Bow”
“The Autumn Sorrows and Joys”
“The Last Bow”
frost will come through the empty gardens
Potatoes are dug up in the gardens
Carrots, rutabaga, beets are also cut out, even radishes...
But they cannot do without it (radishes - Auth.), especially after parties and in case of illness.
Old, bare poles in our and neighboring gardens crumbled...
Our garden, especially from the ridges, was so squeezed by the foolishness that I noticed the beds in it only when...
A small paddock of potatoes and beds, with a densely occupied vegetable garden, weeded from the house, the earth was bare black there.
...as if lost, but still freshly darkening beds... testified that they live in the house.
A brief analysis: there is growth, stability, because there are “big Chaldon families”, because the undergrounds and cellars are filled with crops, it’s time to cut cabbage - this is not a time for one family, but for the whole village, and radish helps after parties and in case of illness, then there is some kind of abundance, rural well-being, a measured life.
A brief analysis: desolation is felt, everything is falling apart from old age and neglect, the ground turns bare black, i.e., there is land, but the owner no longer has the strength to plant more of anything on it.
Durnina – local Any weed.
There are more weeds in the garden than the beds themselves.
Thus, we conclude that the author introduces the reader and himself into the right mood from the very beginning of the text - although the story is written in such a way that it seems that the author tells the reader artlessly about his small homeland, almost all the stories are in a linear composition, from beginning to end, without literary tricks. However, it does not mean that they are absent in the text at all.
The name of the cases can be different; one can make an in-depth study of any genre, or can give a broad name like “Dominants in the writer's text”. The wide scope of cases is convenient with a large number of students in a group, because a prerequisite is that everyone brings something of their own to the overall study, students cannot copy information from each other and from sources without using citations, because the ability to retell concisely a large amount of information is included in literary competence.
A main problem in combining the method of literary cases and the Trello web service is the organizational part, because sometimes inconvenient situations for teacher or students may occur. Nevertheless, Trello has an intuitive interface, the more practice, the more convenient it is to use the board. However, there is a list of possible inconveniences that the teacher may encounter when using this technique.
- - Communication Teacher - Student(s). The teacher has to check a large number of student papers, so initially it is worth introducing strict limits on the number of characters, in the design of papers it is imperative to put information in the title of the document – the student's full name, course, case. If necessary, communication can be made private or limited to a certain circle of people.
- - Failure to meet deadlines or low activity of students on the Trello board. Training according to this method develops another skill that is significant for future young scientists: self-organization. The ability to distribute responsibilities among themselves and build a strategy for opening a case is paramount for managing a team of scientists, therefore, for example, for two weeks, while preparing for a Trello seminar (the frequency of seminars, their volume is controlled by the teacher, but it is better to conduct them more often than less often, because in this way students are constantly in the process of self-education, improving their skills, communicating with classmates and the teacher), it is better to look at the board at the end or at the beginning of lectures in order to fix changes and understand how work on the case is progressing. Students are required to work on the Trello together daily.
- - If students say they are reading material for an assignment, teacher can ask them to take short notes on a given topic, because notes are useful in preparing for the midterms or final exams.
- - Creativity is an important skill and should be used as often as possible, but with regard to the Trello board, there should be the “The simpler the better” rule. If it is convenient for someone to draw diagrams by hand, he can lay it out through a photograph. Also, one can use standard Word tools for creating a graph or illustrations. The main thing is that it works for a result.
- - After a Trello workshop, it is helpful to discuss how the teams did and how well they did. Analysis of the work done and mistakes made makes learning effective.
- - Whatever the competition between the teams, the most important task is to prepare for the exam, that is, after the Trello seminar is passed on some big topic, homework and examples of text analysis become available to all students in the group. With the seeming injustice or uselessness of such a teaching move (students may not understand why, in their opinion, lagging behind students can use the achievements and notes of more diligent and involved comrades), this is a life scheme, because, as a rule, scientists publish their discoveries and developments for colleagues to use. On the other hand, such transparency eliminates plagiarism – because it is clear which student was the first to come to a particular conclusion, made the best analysis, and read more information.
- – Incorrect performance of educational tasks is associated with a misunderstanding of what the teacher wrote about this task. Therefore, it is important to give enough examples of the given task in the “Examples” (if necessary, describe in detail, step by step, in the first section (“Learning Task”) what exactly the teacher expects from students in the end).
- – Insufficiently informative feedback. When a student does the work on his own, and a group of students makes efforts to work effectively and smoothly, such moments must be at least briefly announced by the teacher. Not enough good score for the work done - otherwise communication is not established, and the teacher from the Head of several scientific teams turns into an impersonal grading machine.
The difference between the method of literary cases used in the Trello web service and the usual system “lecture – seminar – independent work of a student with a teacher” is as follows:
- The educational process is not slowed down and does not stop under the influence of lockdowns and transitions to an online learning format;
- Students have more independent work, but at the same time, the knowledge that if some part of the task is not completed, more than one person will suffer – the whole team – makes them cooperate and at least complete the task to a minimum;
- Flexibility of the educational process - the teacher selects the learning tasks of the cases for the goals and objectives of the course, and can also form teams based on the academic performance and personal characteristics of students.
- The system “lecture – seminar – IWST” implies the student's responsibility for personal academic progress, individual work and preparation for exams, while team work on cases adds a spirit of cooperation and collaboration to the individual component, so strong students pull out weak ones, and the weak can no longer hide behind the backs of their classmates and are also forced to join the educational process according to their abilities.
- Possibility of inclusion. When working at seminars and lectures, students who have physical complications and problems (hearing, vision, fatigue) cannot compete with their physically problem-free peers, while when working on cases in the Trello web server, they can get the help of a teacher: written transcripts of lectures, additional references to the necessary literature, and so on. That is, work on the topic in the way that is most comfortable for them.
When studying postmodern texts, for example, “The School for Fools” by Sasha Sokolov or “Dreams of the Cursed” by A. Zhaksylykov, it is worth adding the cases “Intertextual lines and interpretation” and “Features of the genre”, as well as provocative questions “Would you dare to publish this work if you were an editor in a publishing house? Justify your opinion”. That is, it all depends on what kind of literary competencies the teacher wants to develop in students using the example of specific texts and how broadly the students of this course are able to think.
In the form of group lessons, it is important that all students read the text of the work, but everyone does only their own work. Because, for example, when analyzing the style or ideological content, motives of a work, students can put forward their own hypotheses about the image of the author, his life, language, how biographical certain facts are, so that the group that deals with the author’s autobiography can refute during the general seminar or confirm the hypotheses.
The thing that is convenient for the case method is that they can be performed individually or by forming a group of those students who, for one reason or another, could not participate in the group analysis. In this case, the work of students already completed in the general analysis is moved to the “Example of Solution” section and, importantly, there is a special condition for lagging behind students – examples of work should not be copied.
For the convenience of using Trello boards and to maintain a competitive spirit, when members of one team do not yet see the progress of other teams, a teacher or headman can adjust the level of access for participants: there is full access, partial access and passive access, and boards can be private or public. It is expected that access to all boards for all participants in the same group opens during preparation for exams or as the seminar on a given topic is completed.
The method of literary cases helps the teacher to see the entire group of students in action at once, to understand who invests in the learning process, who does not, and, importantly, there are students who pass written work well, but are not active during oral answers – individual communication with a teacher is possible for such students, which is important for a personal approach to teaching future scientists.
At the same time, there is no need to slow down the educational process to check whether students have memorized the material. For each case, there is a list of questions that can later become the basis for exams or tests, and since everyone has access to the Trello board, the whole group accumulates a base for memorizing answers. Those students whom the teacher marks as inactive both verbally and in writing can be given a neighboring case to solve or given other tasks - or simply reduce the score for underachievement. The volume for submitting a case is also important: the teacher himself sets a limit depending on the number of students and, accordingly, his level of workload.
Short answers are easier to check for anti-plagiarism, and formulating a short answer after processing a lot of information is a valuable skill.
One of the advantages of cases is that students work together and prepare for exams together, while the teacher can track inactive students and guide them in the educational process.
Another advantage is the competitive component. Excitement helps to give all the best to act either as an expert who stands out with knowledge of the literary analysis of the work, or as a strong close-knit group that correctly divided responsibilities in preparing for the case. Students act as literary experts who have done theoretical and practical work.
Depending on the purpose of the teacher, it is possible to create a flexible learning space for mastering terms, methods of analysis, information retrieval, communication, self-organization, management and time management skills, teamwork and responsibility for the information that the student places for his classmates. Optionally, teacher can add teaching skills, when students check essays or analysis of text passages from each other.
Most importantly, work on a case in the Trello web service continues regularly and always, regardless of whether the learning process is online or offline.
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- Tiupa, V.I. (2001). Analitika khudozhestvennogo. (Vvedenie v literaturovedcheskii analiz) [Analytics of Art (Introduction to Literary Analysis]. Moscow: Labirint; Rossiiskii gosudarstvennyi gumanitarnyi universitet [in Russian].