In this paper we consider the influence of the Silk Road on the distribution of different religious beliefs and the pursuit of cultural exchange of ideas on the territory of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Research covered the ancient history of the spreading of different religious cults, Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam etc. along the Silk Road. The article presents the historical role of the Silk Road in establishing religious dialogue between East and West, the main centers of religious and distribution routes for Kazakhstan's segment of international trade routes. In the work have been used archaeological, historical and anthropological researches of domestic and abroad scientists.