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Current methods of studying literary heritage

The article analyzes scientific approaches to the study of the literary heritage of the national literary science of the forties. During this period, literary criticism and literary criticism actively studied the classical heritage, and also studied the life and work of prominent representatives of Kazakh literature. The authors study the issues of systematization of the national heritage, in particular, the history of Kazakh literature. Special attention is paid to the stages of studying the classical heritage, which has become significantly reinterpreted in modern literary studies. Erroneous views on the literary process from the point of view of ideology began to be erased. The article raises the question of studying folklore essays and epic poems that have long been ignored by classical science.

In the national Kazakh Soviet literature of the early forties, it was customary to write essays from the history of Kazakh Soviet literature and Kazakh literature of the XVIII-XIX centuries. Critics, literary scholars, scholars, writers and poets who are actively involved in topical issues of criticism, also participated in unresolved problematic issues of literary criticism. At that time, when there was a tangible need for national intellectuals, who were shot in the tragedy of Stalin, and qualified scholars and literary critics, which sent to the front during the Great Patriotic War, it was extremely necessary to show maximum activity in all areas of literary criticism by writers who had previously participated in literary processes. Every step that the literary scholars and scholars understand, aimed at resolving the issues assigned by the requirements of the era, can be assessed as honesty and sympathy for literature. Especially, the active participation of critics in questions relating to the research of Kazakh literature, the history of Kazakh Soviet literature, apparently set out to continue the search in the national research and literary-theoretical direction. As a result, in the second half of the forties, searches that were before heavy decisions adopted managed to achieve significant successes in the study of the history of literature as objectively as possible, as well as in ridding the literary and classical heritage of the science of national literary criticism from primitive sociologism.

Kazakh literary criticism tried to make the most of the small chance, which was aimed at conducting research work, a short time before the issuance of decisions in the period from 1939 to 1947, when the severity of the action of exposing the «enemies of the people» was settled.

Soviet ideology did not let go of any branch of science. But the defeat at the beginning of World War II inspired the spirit of the population to heroic deeds. Therefore, ideology allowed each nation to look into its own history, in the literary heritage that called for courage and to revive all this anew in consciousness. Party policy seized the exaltation and praise of the outstanding historical personalities of the Russian people by Stalin, and thus the propaganda of their heroes began in each nation. This positively influenced literature that is adjacent to history, literary criticism and paved the way for bold searches. Kazakh literary criticism, which experienced many difficulties in the study of literary and classical heritage, sought to make the most of this opportunity.

In particular, the theoretical and literary studies that began with the work of A.Baitursynov, «Theory of Literature», continued with the works of «Theory of Literature» by G.Zhumaliev and «Issues in the Theory of Literature» by E. Ysmaylova.

And in the study of the history of literature, the publication of S. Mukanov's book entitled «Essays from the history of Kazakh literature of the 18th-19th centuries» eliminated the barriers to correctly assessing the heritage of poets such as Bukhar Zhyrau, Shortanbai, Murat, Sherniyaz, Nysanbai, whose works were recognized as ideologically conflicting. With the help of this, in the study of the history of literature from the point of view of national interest, research thoughts about the literary course «The Age of Sorrow» which was studied by M.Auezov, H. Dosmukhamedov and about its main representatives were continued according to the historical relationship.

In examining the state and progress of the development of Kazakh literary criticism in the first half of the forties, one can see the docking and the relationship between criticism and the science of literary criticism. Therefore, we must consider issues of literary criticism in a unit by searches in literary criticism. In turn, the science of literary criticism clearly cannot be deployed where there is no criticism.

During this period, Kazakh literary criticism was in the process of becoming a genre types in the performance of important matters assigned by the requirements of the era. Abay's creativity had the main and decisive property in mastering, researching the heritage, creativity of famous representatives of the history of literature, and most importantly, in determining his own place in the art of the word of each gifted person.

It is becoming clearer, that despite the difficulties and obstacles that have been overcome, Kazakh literary criticism, including literary criticism, has a great merit in the transition of abaeology to a new level in the years 1940–1945.

In 1940, the poet's 95th birthday was celebrated, which contributed to prompting the study of Abay's work. Publication of the poet's works in 1940, for the first time in Moscow under the name «Abay Kunanbayev. Lyrics and poems» was the solution to the accumulated problems on a scientific basis. M.Auezov put a lot of work into the creation of a complete biography of the poet. He wrote a full biography of Abay in a complete collection of the poet's works published in 1940. At that time, it was evaluated as one of the main achievements of abaeology. Literary criticism, to the extent possible, contributed to this. The press publications from different angles examined the poet's life, work, and literary heritage, as well as critics, literary critics, along with scientists, writers and poets, who supported this. Articles on the theme of G.Zhumaliev, «The language of Abay's poetry», «Abay is a great realist poet» E.Ysmaylov, «Outstanding Abay», A. Tokmagambetov «The Abay Poetical School», M.Akynzhanov «The Social Content of Abay Works», M.Bozheev «Translation Works of Abay», K.Bekkhokhin «The Great Poet of the Kazakh Nation» had a huge role in the study and promotion of the poet's heritage.

Another question in which art criticism took an active part, which had an albeit small impact on the way of promoting the literary process of developing national literature, and then experienced the crisis due to the demands of the times, was bold participation in mastering the literary heritage of the past era and the twenties and thirties.

Literary criticism also took part in the search aroused by the demand of time, such as the development and study of the classical heritage, as well as the life and work of prominent representatives of the history of literature. In particular, a great contribution of criticism was made to important issues of abaeology. For example, in 1940, a complete collection of Abay's works was published. Also in this collection there was presented full biography of the poet written by M.Auezov. The first bibliographic index of Abay's works was compiled by E.Ismayilov, K.Bekhozhin and published in Russian and Kazakh languages. This can also be considered another achievement of criticism. Because it is well known that bibliographic indexes, as a rule, provide the opportunity to put in order and clarify once written critical research articles and their verification.

A lot of articles, as well as the works of A.Zh.Tazhibayev «Abay and the objectives of Kazakh Soviet poets», M. Gabdullin «Abay and the Eastern literature», «The social content of the Abay's poetry» by M. Akynzhanov, «The language of Abay poetry» by K. Zhumaliyev, «Outstanding Abay» E.Ismayilov are published on the pages of periodicals. «This was a phenomenon closely related to the process of struggle against formalism and sociological knowledge, on the basis of which research was resumed as getting rid of the old-fashioned point of view of Abay's heritage researchers and recognition of Abay as a classical poet of Kazakh literature», wrote Myrzakhmetov, whose opinion clearly shows new searches in abaeology [1; 102].

Especially, in articles published in the forties of the 20th century and related to Abay studies, can be noticed the deliverance of the main shortcomings observed when examining the heritage of the great poet from the point of view of vulgar sociology. Subsequently, a growing feature was noticed in the scientific research opinion, and meaningful opinions began to be expressed about the Abay's language of poetry and his pupils. For example, K. Zhumaliyev in his article «The language of Abay's poetry» highly praised the language culture and features of the use of words and commented on the language of the Abay's works as «the most artistic, the most modern» and «Abay can be considered as an encyclopedia of the Kazakh language» [2; 61]. And the opinion of E.Ismayilov, M.Auezov about the poetry school of Abay, his students, was based on his article «Outstanding Abay». The main reason why we can combine literary criticism with Abay, firstly, is that attempts to test the nature of national speech with the help of Abay's work are obvious, and secondly, we see that criticism does not remain outside the study of the classical heritage. There are many reasons for this. Literary criticism, in addition to striving to determine its own orientation, also intervened in the problems of literary criticism. Articles devoted to the heritage of Abay were widely published in voluminous monographic research works and demonstrated the growing appearance of scientific-research, literary- theoretical, critical-aesthetic ideas [3; 105].

At the same time, the study of main ways in the history of literature led to critical scientific research in their systematization. In 1940, articles of a literary and historical format were published on prominent figures in the history of literature, such as Sh.Ualikhanov, Y.Altynsarin, Murat Monke, M.Zh.Kopeev, Tanirbergenov, S.Toraigyrov. All this shows not only the development in the study and mastering of the classical heritage, but also the scientific research idea, which began to get rid of erroneous views from the point of view of sociology which arose from class understanding. Important and literary-historically truthful opinions were also expressed about the folklore works rejected due to the class understanding that were considered unfamiliar to the people, including outstanding examples of the epic. For example, articles by M. Gabdullin on the topic «Folk Folklore», «Kobylandy Batyr», B. Kenzhebayev «On the «Kazakh Folk Epic», «Koblandy Batyr», «Epic Poetry» by A. Margulan, «The Historical Heritage in Formation of Epic Poetry» were written in 1940, and we can see that research in the field of national-scientific was not overwhelming. All this influenced literary criticism and contributed to the solution of problematic issues.

These statements on certain point indicate that some problems still remain relevant in the review of that period, which is based on scientific analysis from today's point of view. First of all, we tried to suggest and analyze the issue of free expression of our national identity of this period, the process of striving for the will of scientific research opinions and consciousness in the sphere of spirituality, that did not want to succumb to restrictions; Secondly, despite the fact that the totalitarian system tried to force to do its own things, thoughts and consciousness were restrained, nowadays we can talk about the literary heritage of that era; Thirdly, when there is a substantial literary science, then there is a science of literary criticism, if there is a basis for its research, that means there is an independent method based on truth. And this shows that it is necessary to understand in a new way those literary-theoretical and critical-aesthetic views that have been expressed for more than seventy years.

The first steps towards the development of domestic literary science came up to difficult a period as the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, because of which it survived the next difficulties. Some of the young specialists who survived from Stalin's time went to war when they were just starting to study literature, and at that time there was a shortage of literature specialists. This, in turn, negatively affected national literature and criticism.

In the first half of the forties, literary criticism comprehensively examined not only the history of literature, but also fiction, and began to concentrate on critical treatment of successes and shortcomings. Now the main goal of literature is to focus on the literary-theoretical, critical-aesthetic channel of art and genre and to increase the scientific character of criticism.

Famous writers and literary critics of that time actively participated in literary criticism and contributed to the development of criticism. «Kazakh literature and criticism during the war years did a great job in accordance with the requirements of that time. This is evidence that the good traditions of the science of Kazakh literary criticism that developed in the 20-30s of this century were successfully continued by literary scholars and critics» [4; 66]. The revival of literary criticism is a complex process closely related to the progress of literary criticism. The main goal of the Great Patriotic War was the defeat of fascism as a common enemy, and the question of strengthening the spirit of courage and patriotism of each nation at the allUnion level was exaggerated. It seemed that Soviet ideology, which carefully monitored the requirements of that period, gave freedom to a research ideas that could unite the whole nation on the road to victory.

This, firstly, affected the weakening of the classical approach to the requirements of the theory of «un- scientific sociology» in the study of literary and folklore heritage, and secondly, the issue of increasing the sense of patriotism among the people and the exaltation of the historical figures of each nation who were dishonored after the revolution.

The names of historical figures such as Abylay, Kenesary began to be promoted, and historical and epic poems were published that were previously banned.

In 1941, E. Ismayilov, K. Bekozhin prepared for publication poems and legends about Kenesary- Nauryzbay and their heroes. M. Akynzhanov «Military traditions of the Kazakh people», H. Adilgereev «From the history of the formation of the Kazakh people», E. Ismailov «Several fighting styles of the participants in the uprising of 1916», B. Kenzhebaev «Abylay», S.Mukanov «Heroic tradition». Also informative articles about Syrym Datuly, Isatay Taymanuly, Makhambet Utemisuly were published. As a result of such significant research, «the History of the Kazakh SSR» was published in 1943, which identified great achievements in an objective study of the history of Kazakhstan in a complex and historical reality. Famous historians E.Bekmakhanov, A.Pankratov, as well as writers such as M.Auezov, S.Mukanov, K.Bekozhin, Kenzebaev, E.Ismailov, made a great contribution to this fundamental work.

Historian M. Kozybayev noted that only after the publication of the «History of the Kazakh SSR» in 1943 the system of the social state, the state structure and the political system of the Kazakh state began to be widely discussed. The authors and editors of this work, Kassym, Haknazar, Tao-khan, have been centrally devastated, and have been convinced that their level of development was higher than the empire of Genghis Khan, the state of Kyiv, the Great Carl Empire, but subsequently it was exposed to feudal decay» [5; 19]. Russian scientists also took part in studying the history of Kazakhstan. This can be proved by the articles of L.Kuchkin and M. Vyatkin «The history of the Kazakh SSR», A.Piaskovsky's «History of the Kazakh SSR»,

  1. Pankratova's articles «Basic problems of the Kazakh SSR's history». Particularly, E.Bekmakhanov's research has become a personal study of the history of the nation, and it is obvious that he is interested in Kazakh literature. Because the scientist studied Kenesary's movement not only with historical data, but also on the literary heritage. For example, «The role of folklore is especially important in studying the history of Kazakhstan. This is because in the second half of the XIX century there was no written literature of the Kazakh people. That is why great historival events has been passed on from generation to generationand remained in the memory of the Kazakh people in the form of oral history such as poems, poetry, saga, heroic epic, fairy tales, legends and so on. These folklore materials suggest that the social and social structure, life and customs of Kazakhs, and finally, the most important historical events in the life of the people have become clear» [6; 42]. The bold study of E. Bekmakhanov in the study of the Kazakh history with scientific depth has also contributed to literary criticism and the search for national interests. Because the history of literature and history is an inseparable concept. Whatever the people, especially for the conquered ones, freedom and courage of the nations on the way to independence, has left an indelible mark in history.

In the continuation of the activities of literature, including criticism, a special place was occupied by scientific perseverance, the principle of individual critics and literary critics. Evidence of this can be fundamental research, such as K.Zhumaliev «Kazakh poetry before Abay and the language of poetry Abay» (1948), «M. Otemisuly» (1948), B. Kenzhebaev «Poetry of Sultanmakhmut» (1949) which indicate that that devoted literary scholars and learned critics, despite ideological difficulties, political repressions at that time, without retreating, published valuable articles and research works.

«The articles of the works of this period in the development of the scientific ideas of E.Ysmaylov and Kezhebayev about Sultanmakhmut, K. Zhumaliev about Makhambet showed a high example of research of such talents from a monographic point of view» [2; 348].

Also, such works as K. Zelinsky «Dzhambul», M.N. Ritman-Fetisov «Dzhabayev: Life and Creativity», a biographical essay titled «Dzhambul» of S. Begalin, A. Tazhibayev, M. Fetisov and bibliographic indicators are the main achievements in zhambylology science.

«A talented critic correctly chooses the genre, which is necessary to achieve his goals, then skillfully uses it and will complement the lack of the genre if necessary. As a result, certain tendencies of each critic are formed for certain genres», writes D. Iskakuly, a researcher of the genre nature of Kazakh literary criticism, emphasizing the direct connection between the ways of improving the genre and the skill of the critic. Meanwhile, works with studies in the monographic nature of the works about Abay of M.Auezov, Makhambet and Abay of K.Zhumaliev, S. Toraigyrov of B.Kenzhebayev, Zhambyl of E.Ysmaylov, Sh.Ualikhanov of A.Margulan show their scientific skills and winning sides in choosing the right topics Steps towards monographic research are a biographical article and a creative portrait. At the same time, there is a peculiar reason that these genre types of criticism are not shown at the full level. This was not allowed not only by the emergence of situations from Marxist-Leninist methodological requirements, but also by the confusion of creative thinking. Even if literary criticism could not go deeper into the problematic issues of word art, it did not stop the tradition of expressing an opinion on art collections and works in periodicals. However, there were shortages of critical articles in revealing the artistic features of works and theoretical analyzes. Literary criticism at the time, as M. Karatayev noted: criticism of literature has not yet rid itself of primitive sociologism and national nihilism, which were strengthened and nourished by the cult of personality, and for many years had a bad effect on Marxist-Leninist theory and criticism, on the method of sociological realism. Therefore, full-fledged studies entitled «The History of Kazakh Literature» (volume I, folklore) B.Kenzhebayev which were published in 1948, came under criticism from the point of view of primitive sociologism and national nihilism.

The first volume of the «History of Kazakh Literature» (1948) came under criticism on the pages of newspapers and was captured by a literary association. There were times when there were those who, reading this volume, turned into suspects and were taken administrative measures. In this work, an analysis of poems that are the main income of literary scholars such as M. Auezov, E. Ysmaylov, B. Kenzhebayev, B. Shalabayev and poems associated with historical names like Sarzhan, Kenesary, Nauryzbay, Zhankozha, Beket, which are not lost value even now, was considered as a political mistake. In a resolution issued in 1947, in connection with the «political mistake» of the Institute of Language and Literature, the first edition of the original collective work devoted to Kazakh folklore and the epic was also criticized.

In literary criticism of the second half of the forties, topical issues of Kazakh Soviet literature appeared in articles with a problematic character. Problematic articles, like B. Kenzhebayev «The First Period of the Development of Kazakh Soviet Literature» (1948), K. Zhumaliev, «Stages of the Development of Kazakh Soviet Literature» (1949), were distinguished by the fact that they were able to pay attention to exploring the course of development and research directions of Kazakh literature after the October revolution. Known for incorrect articles, S. Bayishov himself, with the help of the article «Complex issues of Kazakh literature and literature research», sought to express a reasonable opinion about the consideration of Kazakh Soviet literature from the point of historical view..

The creation of the scientific history of Kazakh Soviet literature was an important task imposed by the requirement of the era, therefore, to fill in the place of this shortcoming in this direction, the «Essay on the History of Kazakh Soviet Literature», released in 1949, had_temporary importance. It is impossible to talk about the birth of Kazakh Soviet literature, its history of formation without the work of writers, such as S.Seifullin, I.Zhansugurov, B.Maylin. Therefore, it is possible to assess at what level the scientific nature of this essay was. And party decisions sorted out the basic mistakes and shortcomings of the works that were written before the October Revolution about Kazakh literature. Now, the direction, the ideological channel for studying Kazakh Soviet literature has become dependent on the class and party principles of the Marxist- Leninist methodology.

Despite such difficulties and barriers, there were significant successes and problematic issues in the literary criticism of the second half of the 1940s. Firstly, in the national literary criticism fundamental works of studying the work of Abay, Makhambet, Zhambyl, Sultanmakhmut from a monographic point of view were published, the scientific field of science to abaeology also expanded, the legacy of Abay was studied theoretically, a bibliographic indicator was published. Secondly, the «History of Kazakh Literature» (1948) was published, historical poems about Kenesary, Nauryzbay were examined, and an essay on the history of Kazakh Soviet literature was published.

In national criticism and literature, the theory of «primitive sociology» again began to dominate, and at the basis of the principles of socialist realism of fiction began to create literature «view — national, content — socialist». The ideological destructive attacks are reflected in a fair historical assessment not only of our literature, but also of the heritage, students of the literary school of Abay, who is the honor, dignity and pride of the nation.

The beginning in literary criticism from the political and ideological point of view of the destruction of scientific research in two directions contributed to the revival of the nihilist point of view and the beginning of mankurtism in the spiritual world with a «new» character.



  1. Myrzakhmetov, M. (1994). Abaitanu tarikhy [History of Abay's study]. Almaty: Ana tili [in Kazakh].
  2. Zhumaliyev, K. (1940). Abai poesiiasynyn tili [Abay poetry language]. Adebiet zhane iskusstvo — Literature and Arts. Almaty [in Kazakh].
  3. Takirov, S.U. (2014). Adebi syn belesteri [Literary criticisms]. Almaty: Evero [in Kazakh].
  4. 40–50 zhane 60 zhyldardahy Kazakh adebieti [The Kazakh literature of 40–50 and 60 years]. (1998). 2-kitap. Almaty: Hylym [in Kazakh].
  5. Kozybaev, M. (1997). Kazakh memlekettihi tarikhynyn keibir maseleleri [Some issues of the history of the Kazakh statehood]. Akikhat, 2, 18-20 [in Kazakh].
  6. Bekmahanov, E. (1994). Kazakhstan XIX hasyrdyn 20–40 zhyldarynda [Kazakhstan in 20–40 years of the XIX century]. Almaty: Sanat [in Kazakh].

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Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is the intersection between textual criticism, literary criticism, history, and linguistics.[

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