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Специфические особенности Каратау-Жамбылской биогеохимической провинции связаны с производством фосфорных минеральных удобрений.

Ағылшын тілін оқытуда бейвербалды қатынас құралдарының рөлі

The possibility of using non-verbal means in teacher training is demonstrated in pedagogical communication as a creative process in which one of the components of the optimal pedagogical communication is the mastery of teacher’s foreign language by the means of pedagogical influences: pedagogical equipment, all verbal and nonverbal communication. Cultural opportunities of non-verbal means are expressed in the fact that it is necessary to form students’ attitude to a language, to reveal it as a reflection of socio-cultural reality, as a cultural phenomenon in teaching a foreign language. Learning a language is the basis for international understanding, and full understanding is possible only in speech interaction and nonverbal movements that are indicated as the basis of communication.

Communication is a complex socio-psychological process of interaction between people which is implemented through signs and sign system. Psychologists and linguists give accent to two main types of communication: verbal and nonverbal communication.

Verbal communication is a purposeful process of transfer with the help of language (language code) of certain mental content. Some authors consider the communicative function of language and speech as basic primary function. There also exists nonverbal communication, which, on the one hand, can duplicate and support verbal communication, and on the other hand, can control the transfer of any types of mental content (not only internally verbal but also in a graphic, emotional, motivational).

Nonverbal communication is a set of nonverbal communicative means which is a system of gestures, signs, symptoms, codes that are used to transmit messages. Facial expressions, gestures and other expressive means are encoded, decoded, act as signs that have a limited range of meanings and accomplish a message function.

Kreidlin G.E. confirms that «although natural language takes the precedence, many nonverbal aspects of human behavior, for example, how they sit or stand, as placed one against the other, how they change postural pose in communication, play a decisive role in the interactive communication» [1].

It is important to note that nonverbal communication is not as highly structured as verbal one. There are not dictionaries and rules about gestures, facial expressions, intonation, with what we can clearly express our feelings. Nonverbal communication is always carried out in personal contact. It is commonly known that these means of communication can be used separately from verbal means.

Nonverbal communication is considered to be communication without using words, which often occurs unconsciously. It can either complement and intensify verbal communication, or contradict and weaken it. Although nonverbal communication is often considered as an unconscious process, nowadays it has been researched completely, and the achievement of desired effect can be successfully controlled [2, 54].

There are three main types of nonverbal means of information transfer (or they are also called paralinguistic means of communication): phonatory, body language and graphic. Phonatory nonverbal means include voice tone, pace and speech volume, stable intonation, pronunciation peculiarities of sounds that fill pauses (uh, me... and in English this is the so-called hems and haws»: well, hum, um, ur). Body language includes gestures, postures, and facial expressions. Graphic nonverbal means of communication are distinguished in writing.

Comparative analysis of similar gestures used in everyday communication in most cultures shows that gestures used in similar situations by representatives of different linguocultures rarely coincide. They may differ in content coinciding with the form. The minimum number of national specific gestures in cultures of different countries is observed among gestures of approval, denial, attention, invitation, pointing gestures and gestures that show uncertainty, confusion, tension, and sympathy.

Gestures and facial expressions are used according to the etiquette of Kazakhs and the British at greeting time, and in general they have a lot in common. While greeting with strangers Kazakhs and the British often nod or shake hands. On the contrary, Americans do not hide the joy of meeting, waving from a distant (regardless of acquaintance closeness) and at the meeting, hugging (usually close friends). Especially, this form of communication expresses strong emotions that are not typical of Kazakhs, and of the British. But in recent years, under the impact of global process the usual rituals of greeting is replaced by Western cultures (kiss is unacceptable in a meeting of members of the same sexes, intense strokes, etc.).

Most nonverbal rituals used during farewell are similar. The choice of gesture to say «Goodbye!» depends on the kind of relationship between partners in communication, from expected time of separation, position in space, etc. Goodbye forever or for an indefinite period, the English (Americans) as a rule, are not ashamed of their emotions and feelings.

We would like to consider a lexical unit of English, the semantics of which is an indication of the nonverbal act, done by people. The following sentence is taken from the novel H. Lee «To Kill a Mockingbird»: «Atticus sat down and nodded to the circuit solicitor, who shook his head at the judge, who nodded to Mr. Tate, who rose stuffy and stepped down from the witness stand (Lee)». This example presents a situation in which several people, not saying a word, understand each other when using communicative gestures. The lawyer nodded to the solicitor, thereby showing that he has no further questions to a witness, the solicitor turned to a judge, giving to understand that he is not against to finish questioning the witness, the judge nodded to the witness, showing that he can take his place in the hall. The naming units of nod, handshakes denote communicative gestures directed at the addressee.

Also the source (sentences) concerning to nonverbal communication means are taken from «Come Easy Go Easy» by J. Chase and «Precious Time» by E. James.

There is a group of verbs that indicate the parts of body with which the contact is made. They are verbs and verbal combinations, such as handshakes, pat, kiss. First of all, we would analyze their meanings and then give examples with the usage of these verbs.

For example, the next explanations are given to the verb «pat» – «lightly touch someone or something several times with your hand flat, especially to give comfort» (Webster), «show you care about them or want to make them feel better» (Macmillan).

Phrase «pat someone on the back» means

«to praise someone for doing something good» (Macmillan).

The verb «pat» is used in the following sentences: «He reached over and patted my arm firmly» (Chase: 238); «He reached over and patted my arm» (Chase: 223); «Consciously she patted her short, flicked-back hair» (James: 115).

More often these adverbs are used with this verb: gently, lightly, friendly, softly (Macmillan) that confirms the fact that the verb expresses an action with the touch of tenderness, care, positive attitude and approval.

Phrasal verb «shake hands» means «hold someone’s hand and move it up and down several times as a way of greeting them or showing that you agree to something» (Macmillan); «as a sign of goodwill or agreement» (Webster). Like the previous ones, the verb denotes a positive connotation in the verb semantics and includes the iconic nature of gesture. For example: We were shaking hands and thumping each other (James: 227).

It is worth noting that the verbs embrace, hug, pat are somatic verbs, they are involved into action touching the body, while verbs such as touch, hold, press, tap are connected not only with the body. Moreover, the attribution to the sphere of the body is not performed through the verb, but through the noun denoting a part of the body. For example: press the button – is not considered as an action, but, press her hands – is an action that is realized for some communicative purpose.

For instance, the verb hug is used for expressing faith, love, and its meaning in dictionaries is defined as «a sign of love» (Longman), «to show your love or friendship» (Macmillan).

The analysis of dictionary definitions shows that the semantics of words, in addition to naming the physical gesture, the semantic component includes the iconic nature of gesture (as a sign

of love). This suggests that in English the verb hug is functioning to indicate the act of touching committed with a purpose – to convey to the recipient their positive attitude, as can be seen in the following examples:

«She pushed past Mr. Liberty, knelt on the stone flagged floor and hugged Ned»; «Clara hugged him close; bent down and hugged him».

In examples given above, regardless of whose relationship is described, two men – friends who haven’t seen each other for a long time, men and women, mothers and children, young women and an older man who became her father – in all cases, the verb hug has expressed warm, friendly and close relations.

In conclusion national cultural specificity of gestures has a big impact on the effectiveness of the communication process. The study of nonverbal means of communication promotes better understanding of foreign cultures, builds tolerance to all the participants of communication act efficiency of intercultural communication and dialogue of cultures in the modern world.



  1. Kreidlin G.E. The Non-Verbal Semiotics [Text]: The Body Language and Verbal Language / Kreidlin G.E. – M.The New Fiction Review, 2004. – 584 p.
  2. Gorelov I. N. Non-verbal components of communication. – М.: Nauka, 2006. – 112 p.
  3. Byram M. Teaching and Assessing Intercultural Competence / Byram M. Clevedon: Multilingual matters LTD, 1997.
  4. www.merriam-webster.com
  5. www.macmillandictionary.com
  6. Chase J .H. Come Easy Go Easy. – М.: Аiris Press, 2003. – 384 p.
  7. James, E. Precious Time. – London, Condensed Books Division. The Reader’s Digest Association Limited, 2001. – 185 p.
  • Magazine: KazNU BULLETIN
  • Year: 2016
  • City: Almaty
  • Category: Philology

Разделы знаний

International relations

International relations



Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is the intersection between textual criticism, literary criticism, history, and linguistics.[

Technical science

Technical science