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The problems of borrowings in the professional lexis


In recent years theinterest to terminological lexicography, in general, sharply increased and the process of dynamic development of different spheres of knowledge explains it. Although the developmentof working field goes in different directions, yet remain poorly understood terminology sciences, in particular, the problem of their formation. In particular, the matter concerns the formation of terminology as a new area of knowledge, and description of terms of any sphere of activity is an essential aspect of their development [1, 5].

The relevance of this study is also due to a number of reasons. Scientific progress, information transparency, the development of intercultural communication, and professional and terminological disunity – exacerbate the problem of business efficiency and cooperation. This situation is explained by the fact that the rapid pace of development of any field of activity leads to the expansion of its terminology when new terms borrowed from relatives on the subject areas of expertise, or terms started for the first time [2, 23]. So as to form their own terminology, new field of activity often uses existing words from adjacent areas of knowledge, their concepts in the context of the new part, and sometimes substantially vary, which sometimes hinders understanding communicating parties. Based on this, we consider that it is important to follow the process of formation of new terminology to explore potential problems, as well as make a contribution to its systematization and standardization, as «any attempt to understand the communication between people understand that it hinders and what helps is important and justified as well as communication – a pillar of the rod, the foundation of human existence» [3,5].

Theoretical background

The object of research in the article is terminology or special words in logistics. The choice of the object of study is explained by the following factors: firstly, the logistics stood out as a distinct sphere of activity relatively recently – in the early 50-ies of XX century. Logistics is responsible for the receipt of raw materials, products, goods and services. Until now, there are disputes about whether it is possible to consider the logistics as an independent field of knowledge or it is still part of the operational management [4, 5657]. In this paper, following the point of view of the leading domestic logistics specialists, we consider it as a new field of activity, gradually acquiring independence. Secondly, the terminology of logistics includes terms from many related disciplines such as management, transport, commerce, which is a separate problem of the formation of its terminology. Thirdly, the logistics is the most developing area of the economy, and its recently formed terminology needs scientific understanding. Moreover, we want to understand the formation tendency of words in this sphere in Kazakhstan (based onRussian language).

It is known that the terminological system of logisticsis formed collaborating with other scientific, business spheres and especially in English. From the business point, it is not surprising, because this field started to develop in the USA and then in European countries. That is why English language has formed the main vocabulary stock and terminological system in logistics [5, 136]. According to the collected data, we can notice that there are many borrowings from English. Therefore, in this article we are going to study English borrowings in Russian terminology of Kazakhstani logistic sphere, problems of their usage and future tendency.

Many linguists engaged the study of the causes of foreign words borrowing in the early XX century. However, identifying the causes of borrowing was conducted without sufficiently clear differentiation of language and external, nonlinguistic, reasons. Thus, L.P. Krysin in his work indicated that E. Richter showed that the main reason for borrowing words is considered necessary in the name of things and concepts [6, 151]. The main reasons of the borrowing process can be connected with different concepts as linguistic, social, psychological, and aesthetic.Borrowings are used in different purposes. Some people use them in order to show variety of speech, other people think that it points the brevity and clarity of the speech. In some cases, they are used for their convenience, because sometimes it is easier to say the word in its first form without translation of it. They inseparable from cultural and other contacts between the two different languages consider the process of linguistic borrowing [7, 253].

L.P. Krysin and M.A. Breiter identifythe following reasons ofusing borrowings:

  1. Lack of appropriate concepts in the cognitive basis of the language-receptor.

There are cases when borrowing is used to refer to concepts that are not available in the language. This is not exactly corresponding to the first reason, we add: in the receptor, language there is a need to designate «actively pulsating» life event; in their own language at once is not the right word, but in a different language (in our case – English) has two units, which are united (already in Russian) suitable for naming.

  1. Lack of proper names in the language of receptor. M. A. Breiter notes that about 15% of the newanglicisms are borrowed due to the lack of proper names in the language of receptor. This group is also the author attributed those borrowings, which for some reason (easier to pronounce, shorter, more transparent in its etymology, particularly in semantics) pushed (fully or partially) previously undeveloped linguistic units [8, 413].
  2. Ensuring stylistic effect. The reason for borrowing often leads to the function of anglicisms. In the case of coexistence of borrowing and native or previously earned word, the name of the function of anglicisms is marking the western realities or stylistic labeling text, and Russian equivalents are used to describe the Russian reality.
  3. The expression of positive or negative connotations that do not have an equivalent in the language of the unit receptor. The author points out that among Russian speakers it is spread the idea that foreign technology is more advanced compared to Russian and foreign banks are more reliable in foreign goods by a high quality. This plant, according to the author, is widely used in advertising, where borrowing used for updating the positive connotations [9, 156].

Types of borrowings

It’s used quite established terminologywhen we try to describe borrowings. Typically, there are three basic types of loans: loan words, tracing paper and semantic borrowings. About borrow the words (or actually borrowing) we usually speak only in cases where a foreign language is borrowed from the value, and sound the same in speech. All the differences in the sound can be explained as a phenomenon of phonological substitutions occurring in the majority of loan words.

That type of borrowing, which in English is commonly called loan translation «tracing» (literally «borrowing-transfer»), is another step in the same direction. Here is transferred only the general structure of a complex or derivative words, of course, along with its value, but in place of all foreign morphemes substituted morphemes of the native language.

A similar phenomenon is and so-called semantic borrowing, consisting in the fact that the word takes on new meaning thanks to its semantic and phonetic similarity with any word of a foreign language. Such borrowing is manifested in the end only in the appearance of the famous speech before the new value. Calling it a semantic borrowing, we mean that it is the only borrowing that is purely semantic [10, 142].

We examined a number of types of borrowings and found differences between them, allowing them to describe more accurately. In a word borrowed from a foreign language it’s carried sound envelope, and in varying degrees it occurs phonological substitution. Hybrid borrowing instead of the foreign word is substituted with morpheme of the native language.

It allows us to distinguish between two basic types of loans depending on the scope of substitution: Drawing with full or partial transference of phonetic envelope of foreign words, and all other borrowing. The first will be called loanwords, and the second – borrowed shifts, or borrowing-shifts (loanshifts), since in this case the borrowing is manifested only in the shift of consumption (shift of a context) some word of the native language. Loanwords can be subdivided further on the «actual loan words» (pure loanwords) and «hybrid drawing» (loanblends) – depending on whether foreign morpheme transferred in whole or in a part of a word. Drawing-shifts can be divided into extension (extensions) and create (creations), depending on whether they are using some combination of the elements of the native language, existed before borrowing, or build a new one.

The results of the analysis of the content of the English-speaking logistics terms allow us to conclude that they have no significant regional differences in Europe and the US, which confirms their unity, internationality and uniformity due to globalization. In addition, globalization has become a reason for the lack of national or regional research schools – in the English-speaking world scientific schools of logistics did not have a clear design.

Classification of borrowings of Kazakhstani logistics terminology

Study of the problems of formation of the Russian-language terminology of logistics as a new science has a special significance for the optimization of logistics terminology in Kazakhstan. The study found that the content of the same terms and their use in Kazakhstan, there is a significant difference due to the fragmentation of the existing domestic logistics centers and shallow theoretical and practical knowledge. To date, a large number of new borrowings from English into Russian language need standardization and unification to prevent unnecessary doublets.

Set of logistics terms of an application is terminological system. This terminological system is in the process of formation, as its terminological fund is subject to constant transformation. The vast majority of English terms areborrowed and only 3% can be considered new (newly created) terms. The nature of borrowing terms shows that Logistics terminology was formed because of the restructuring terms, down for a long period with the accumulation of knowledge in the theory of this sphere, by combining the concepts of a wide range of economic, technical, mathematical and legal sciences without substantially changing the content. The structuring and ordering this terminological system also evidenced by the presence of logically related to each other in a hierarchy of terminological fields, microcavities and nests.

Before starting our practical part, we tried to look for some dictionaries of logistic terminology in Kazakh and Russian languages that are used at universities for specialty «Logistics». Unfortunately, we faced with the problem of lack of dictionaries, thesaurus and even books that have unified terminology of all processes in logistics. Afterwards, we went to the logistic companies and started observing the process of how company employees used specific terminology of logistic processes.

The first thing that we did was to make the notes of all the vocabulary that involved in the logistics. Secondly, we tried to classify all the terminology and special words used in the lexicology of logistics in Kazakhstan according to the classification of the previous authors.Moreover, we have found the main methods used in transference of words from English to Russian which are:

– LOAN TRANSLATION, LOANSHIFTS – pure loans, loans is transferred into Russian without noticeable changes in alphabetic structure. For example: import – импорт, export – экспорт, express

  • экспресс, cash –кэш, contact – контакт, limit – лимит.

– LOANBLENDS, where we can find some change in morphological structure especially in substitution of affixes. For example:маркировка

  • marking, confirmation -конфирмация, station – станция, sorting – сортировка.

At the same time while studying and analyzing all the procedure of borrowing logistic terminology leads to the following problems:


All languages has phonetic borrowings. Sometimes words are borrowed with their spelling and pronunciation,but in somecases, the spelling is changed. The mispronunciation and different variation of logistic terms can be seen in Russian language from English. For example, the word «tracking» – can be spelled in Russian language in two ways: «трэкинг», «трекинг». Sure, phonetically it might be easier to use the first variant, but according to many samples of other English borrowings in Russian very often it has used the second version of writing. The first reason of mispronunciation is connected with phonetic distinctions between Russian and English languages. These two languages refer to the different languages families: Russian to the Slavic language family and English to the German language family. The pronunciation rules of sounds of Russian language transferred onto the words in English. The same situation can be faced in the next examples: supervisor – «ссууппееррввииззоорр», ««сссуупппееерррвваааййй--зер», request – «рекуэст», «рекуест», «рэкуэст»,

another meaning of it – a suitable package for documents.


Terms that are widely used by logistic experts and employees, but officially not fixed in dictionaries and thesaurus of logistic terminology. Nowadays we can find that there are new words which are not fixed in Russian dictionaries, but in spite of it they are rather wide-spread. These words are трэкинг (tracking – ооттссллеежжииввааннииее), трэйсинг (tracing – ооотт--слеживание), дата-энтри (data-entry – внесение информации об отправителе в систему), флайер (flyer – специальные пакеты для упаковки дддоокккуу-ментов или маленьких), трэк (track – отследить местонахождение ггррууззаа), локейшн (location – ммее-стонахождение ггррууззаа), миссорт (missort – оошшиибб-ка при сортировке), мискод (miscode – ошибка при указании кода города отправки либо пппоолллуучччее--ния), (claim -) конфирмация (((ccooonnfififirmation – пппоооддд--тверждение), cash, coaching, report, sale, billing, hold, abandon. Analyzing this problem we noticed that these kinds of terms were used as well as in Russian spelling as in English in the e-mail writings, company procedures. Moreover, customers who often use logistic service use this kind of words while



aaacccccoouuuunnnntt –



writing requests through e-mail letters and use these

каунт», «акаунт», claim – «клейм», «клайм», «клэйм».


This problem is connected with the usage of borrowings according to the grammar rules of one definite language and lay it on the second language. In this way we can mention such aspects like correct usage of tense, inflections, affixes, gender, case, prepositions and so on which are not grammatically fixed nowadays. For example, many customers, who use service of logistics company feed down such expressions like «Ятрэкаюсвоюпосылку..» – «I am tracking my shipment…» «Моя посылка на хххооллл--де» – «My shipment is on hold».


As we have mentioned above many terms in logistics appeared from other spheres and with the process of borrowing words changed their semantic meaning by widening or narrowing the meaning of the word.

This process exists not only in the sphere of logistics but also in many other fields of science. We name it polysemy of words. Nevertheless, it’s also a very important issue for studying because semantic changes of words make an influence on vocabulary stock of science. For instance, the word «flyer»-«флаер» – means a ticket, a paper, but in Logistics Company devoted to express delivery, we noticed words in their daily speaking. The example of it can be the word «тracking number» – «трэкингномер».

  1. USING BORROWINGS IN ORDER TO LOOK UP-TO-DATE OR TO SHOW THAT YOU KNOW THESE TERMS. There are several international logistics companies, which let their customers trace their shipments online. Considering their web sites, we noticed that some information is given in English and then translated into Russian. Many customers who call to call-centers speaking Russian try to use terms in English in order to show their awareness with logistics terminology or just English language. The same can be seen in e-mail letters with requests from customers to logistics companies.
  2. TRANSLATION OF TERMS FROM RUSSIAN INTO KAZAKH LANGUAGE. This issue is deeply connected with previous problems. It is well known that terminological stock of Kazakh language is interdependent with terminology in Russian. Moreover, there are manywords, which are widely used in Kazakh language due to historical connections between two countries.

We made a list of logistic terms, which are borrowed from English language and used in Russian. First, we want to mention that there are many words, which are connected with terminological sphere of logistics, which are well known and commonly used as well as in Russian as in English. These words are import – ииммппоорртт,, export – ээккссппоорртт, express – ээкксс-пресс, automobile – автомобиль, address – адрес, airport – ааээррооппоорртт, broker – бббрррооокккеееррр,, station – сссттааанн--ция, sorting – ссооррттииррооввккаа, marking – мммаарррккиииррооовв-ка, declaration – декларация, date – дата, center

  • ццееннттрр, transit – тттрррааанннзззиииттт,, transportation – ттррааннсс-портировка, region – регион, packing – упаковка, limit – ллииммиитт, category – кккааатттееегггоооррииияяя,, contact – кккооннн--такт, code – код, coordinates – координаты, index
  • ииннддеекксс,, inspector – иииннсссппееекктттоорр,, zone – зззоонннаа, dddiisss--patcher.

5. Conclusion

Concluding all the previously written we can say that these words can also be included into the vocabulary stock of Russian language.

Making this research, we understand that we have a problem of lack of specialized dictionaries for logistics sphere. Certainly, it is connected with the fact that logistics is a young field of business that is why scientifically it does not have a well-studied foundation. Nevertheless, terminological system of logistics is not considered widely and unified as, for example we can say about the sphere of economics.

Mostly, scientific linguistic literature devoted to logistics is written in English language while in Russian language it is often used a translated literature. It leads to the problem of introduction of new words in the form of borrowings and their further analysis that causes other spelling, grammatical and syntactical problems of their correct usage. At the same time, the increasing amount of new borrowings due to development of logistics leads to rapid changes in terminological system. It shows that the words, which can be considered as professionalisms or terms nowadays, after several years, can be included into the common vocabulary stock of the language or even change their first meaning and can be used in other sphere with other denotation.

We need standardization of logistics terminology uniting all special words. From one side, it unifies all collected knowledge and classifies it and, from the other side, it can show tendencies of development in linguistic point. We see that this process needs involving not only work inside our country, but also with foreign partners.



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