The language vocabulary is changing, renewing the existing words and creating new, this takes place not only in linguistics, but also in other different spheres of human activities. The subject of the investigation in this article is neologisms in the world of fashion and their usage in Modern English. This work deals with the different new words in the fashion sphere, their semantic classification and analysis.
Each year, more and more words are added to English lexicon. New meanings are given to existing words by media, politicians, celebrities, artists, educators, writers, techies and just by about anyone creative enough to a neologism. This term simply means a new word or a new phrase that is being commonly used but not yet included in a mainstream language.
A neologism can be a brand new word gaining usage in a language, or a new meaning for a word already in existence. Such a term isn't typically in common use, but may become so if it is used often. Neologisms can come from a variety of places and might be gleaned from scientific or technical language, come from other languages, be derived
by putting two words together, or they may be solely invented. Linguistic specialists suggest new words often migrate into a language most with great cultural changes or with the integration of two cultures that speak two different languages. Arguably, things like social media may also have great influence on which new words become part of a language.
Changes to the English language do not go unnoticed by linguists and lexicographers. While some of the other languages in the world are being fiercely protected in their mother countries, English seems to enjoy the influx of new terms into its dictionaries. "OMG," "FYI," "Britcom," "emailed," "goldendoodle," and "brain candy" are Neologisms in the world of fashion 9 just some of the surprising entries to the Oxford English Dictionary .
We live in a society that constantly develops. New objects in different spheres arise and they need to be named. That is why no science can exist without neologisms, new words. Though the neologisms dominate in the field of knowledge, other people, not only scientists, can also feel the necessity to express and interpret reality by new ways and create new words that would reflect it.
One of the different spheres of human activities which plays a big role in creating neologisms is fashion industry. Every day designers, creators of new fashion styles renew old words or give new names to the objects, clothes and everything which is connected to the fashion world. Then editors of famous magazines and models do not have a choice other than using that strange unknown words until people start understand and also use them in their speech. That is a process of new words of fashion world entering a language. At the present moment fashion is developing very swiftly and there is so called “neology blow up” in this sphere. For example, recent years advertisers promote such new words as backsters – beech sandals with thick soles or swetnik which is understood as a long jacket [3.75].
Linguists often classify neologisms by its degree of use in a language. The newborn word is at first unstable, and it’s hard to guess whether it will take hold and eventually be a word that most people know and use. A diffused neologism means that many people are using the word, but it doesn’t yet have formal recognition as a word, and ultimately, if the word remains popular it may attain stable status. It has become part of the language and is likely to be defined in dictionaries [1.85].
At first, the neologisms were a kind of a secret language among the fashion industry, etymologists say. Yet they're going mainstream. Now, editors of the prestigious Oxford English Dictionary are tracking them for possible inclusion.
A neologism matchy-matchy can serve as an example. It is an adjective used to describe something or someone that is very or excessively colour coordinated. It is a term that is commonly used in fashion blogs to describe an outfit that is too coordinated and consists of too many of the same types of colors, patterns, fabrics, accessories, etc. Matchy-matchy was added to the Oxford English Dictionary in 2010 along with 200 new words. This neologism is used mostly in fashion blogs dealing with something being too alike or matching too much. Wearing tops and bottoms that match are the new look in fashion .
Lexicographers are facing a challenge these days since many new words achieve popularity and acceptance in a short time period. There was a time when new words of mode, in order to be considered for inclusion, had to be in use for two or three years. This is not the case now. In today's age of unusual clothes and new different styles, new terms are created in a blink of an eye. Assessing whether a new word is evanescent or eternal is a job lexicographers take seriously.
The men and women’s collection shows at different Fashion Weeks all over the world give rise to more neologisms. Fashion editors often lack the words to describe wacky runway concoctions. At Hermès’ women's fashion collection in March, for instance, "poots" was coined to identify a pair of leather pants that segue into boots.
All neologisms of fashion world fall into various categories. Therefore, we can classify neologisms in the fashion sphere into several semantic groups such as neologisms of clothing, footwear and bags. It is crystal clear that the neologisms pertaining to the clothing consist of new words which name particular types of clothes. There are some examples of it:
Slimster or string – miniscule bikini for women; Hipsters – trousers or skirt with the belt on hips; Completenik – a long sweater for trousers; Pants-skirt bloomers – lady’s sports trousers;
Treggings – are type of trousers made from combining trousers + leggings;
Plus size clothing clothing proportioned specifically for overweight people;
Bosnian tuxedo – any nylon or velvet track suit;
Catsuit – one piece clinging suit which was originally created to name a masquerade outfit.
There are also a lot of new words belonging to the footwear in the fashion:
Bandals – shoes combined from boots and sandals: boots + sandal;
Thongs – are open sandals for everyday outlook;
Cougar Climbers – one of the many names for the new 7-inch high heel shoes fashion craze;
Shoots – type of shoes combined with boots, this term is made by compounding two words: shoe + boots;
Winklepickers – extraordinary shoes with long pointed toes both for men and women.
Neologisms belonging to the group of bags are less than in previous two, nevertheless it cannot be left unnoticed. They describe new unusual bags of different styles and take their own not less important role in fashion. For instance:
Bumbag – a small bag worn on waist, which is very comfortable and do not disturb people while working;
Maitre – a small bag for cosmetics, recently it has replaced a small makeup bag in usage;
Sling bag – a type of handbag that is worn over one shoulder with a strap that winds around the chest resting the bag on the lower back. Although it is similar to a messenger bag, a sling bag is often smaller.
We can list other neologisms which cannot be included into three main groups, but are directly connected with the world of fashion. Components of this group are new words linked to the magazines, journals, models and accessories:
Trendbook – journal which describes new styles, clothes, etc;
Trendsetter – someone who popularizes a new fashion, this can be model, celebrity or designer;
Alpha consumer – one who picks up on trends before they become trends, used as a predictor for what will be popular in a few weeks or months;
Bling-bling – shiny metal trinkets, necklaces, objects of luxury;
Boho referring to a specific Bohemian fashion style that originated in New York;
Fashionista – a fashion-conscious female, this term is used to describe a girl obsessed with fashion and trends; she only wears the best labels and latest designer name brands;
Fashion roadkill – a model who trips on the runway, or a very badly dressed person;
Armanied – very stylish, characterized by contemporary, suave fashion similar to the clothing of designer Giorgio Armani;
Spatique – a store where one can purchase or receive spa services and also buy beauty and fashion products;
Glamazon – a trendy female, it is used to denote a girl who always dresses very elaborately in the latest trends and fashions.
As the world of fashion is divided into two groups of `fashion for men` and `fashion for women`, neologisms in the fashion sphere can also be divided into the same groups. Today, there are more new words connected with men’s clothing style, it's part of a special lexicon that has emerged, over the past decade, as a sort of shorthand for men's fashion. Editors of the Oxford English Dictionary are “tracking” hybrid fashion terms like “manties”, “mewelry”, and “mantyhose” for "possible inclusion" in a future edition.
The invention of new words to describe men's fashion is a symptom of the recent boom in the men's fashion industry. The sector is proving particularly resilient to economic turbulence: during the first half of this year, sales of men's apparel in the U.S. rose 4.6% while women's fell 0.8%, according to market researcher NPD Group.
The rise of men's fashion, and its corresponding lexicon, goes back to the birth of the term metrosexual in the 1990s. Used to describe a man who is concerned with his appearance, it ushered in a generation of pop culture stars who are praised, not ridiculed, for their style choices.
A few expressions deal with the less glamorous side of fashion. Some male models are said to suffer from "manorexia." Several words describe grooming more than fashion, such as "guyliner" (eyeliner for guys) and "manscaping" (the removal of hair from men's limbs and loins).
In the past decade, manbag has become particularly common – both as a product and as a word. The scientists over at Oxford English Dictionary gave "manbag" a stamp of approval five years ago – the only new men's fashion term to receive the distinction. Fiona McPherson, the dictionary's senior editor for new words, said manbag had met the test of time. She traced the word's first use back to 1968 [2.201].
The following words do not actually exist in the English language – at least in dictionaries – at least not yet – though I’ve come across them all, some spoken, others written in newspapers or on blogs, in comment sections, or elsewhere. They’re all trying to be real words but somehow go off the mark. Some of them are quite charming, and maybe someday they’ll become familiar and accepted enough to enter the language completely:
Mandals – open-toed shoes that are more formal and structured than flip-flops;
Murses – a handbag for men, from male or man + purse;
Manties – men’s underwear;
Mankini – a brief one-piece bathing garment for men, with a T-back, from man + bikini;
Mantyhose – type of tights, hosiery or leggings for men, combined from man + pantyhose.
The progress of fashion, arts and mode gives occasion for the large majority of new words; for a new thing we must have a new name; hence, for instance, fashionista, murses, and winklepickers.
As a literary concept and term, neologism appeared in the 18th century and its old meaning was synonymous to «barbarism». In the modern meaning of neologism appeared early in the 19th